Welcome to the GameShark World. In this document, you will learn several
different ways to hack your own codes. These methods range in degree of
difficulty from easy to difficult and yield various results. As you read
you are encouraged to practice the methods that are described in this
document. This way, you will learn by your activities.
There is more than one way to hack codes. This ranges from guessing, to
a secret hacking system, which not everyone will understand. Again, as you
read, try the ideas mentioned. It has been proven that people learn easier
and faster when they are active in a project.
It is the authors wish that the material presented here meets the
anticipated needs of the reader's wishes to learn to hack GameShark codes.
You might even come up with another variation of these methods to hack
codes. If you do, let us know and we will consider including it in future
versions of this document.
Hacking Basics - Theory
Know the Code
Offsets(or RAM addresses) are typically found by examination of the game
memory by using advanced hacking equipment such as a GS Pro, Shark Link or
hex viewer on a ROM. Basically, an offset is a "memory holder" in which
it (usually) holds a byte of memory(a two digit hexadecimal code).
If you find an offset that holds the health digits when using a ROM and
hex viewer, you can be certain that it isn't the GS code(if you find the
health at offset "012203" the GS code usually won't be "80012203 FFFF".)
There is less than a 1% chance of finding an offset and it actually being
the code. The reason the offset and the offset digits in a GS code are not
the same is this - There are MANY, MANY offsets which are used to tell the
platform what type of game it is(size, language, title, checksum values,
etc.), and other operation codes which will assign all the offsets to do
what they are meant to do. There are offsets that hold the hex values that
make up the pictures you see in the game, the coordination's of the character
you control, mathematical operations... The list goes on and on... The
header(tells the machine what type of game you're are booting) might take up
all offsets past "012203" itself!
There is a block of info that tells where the quantifier-offsets(the
byte of memory which you change through GS codes begin and which are usually things
such as number of an item you have or level of health you have). This block is
called RAM(Random Access Memory), which does exactly what it says. RAM is
memory that will be changed all throughout its processing. Score and health
are good examples of RAM, the values for both will be changed while you're
game is running. So think of GameShark as a RAM Editor.
More information about offsets is beyond the scope of this document and
will not be included in future editions of this text.
Systems of counting or number base
Decimal Notation, based on ten digits, is something you already know.
Count to 50 like you normally count. You can count using decimal notation.
Binary, or dual counting, is based on two digits. It's really easy to
understand and use. You'll need to know the following -
There are two characters used in binary - 0,1
(Think of it as a switch).
A "1" means the switch is turned ON.
A "0" means the switch is turned OFF.
That's what binary is, a bunch of switches. I won't go into any more
detail about switches now, but will return to this topic later in the
A four-digit string of code written in binary is called a "word".(this
is also the same in hex[1-digit])
Four Binary Digits(bits - 'BInary digiTS') equals 1 digit hex.
Three bits equals 1 digit octal.
Now that you know that, hex and octal should seem easier to learn. In
this document, we will refer to any and all hex values with "-h" and decimal
values with "-d". So value "100" decimal will read like this - "100-d" and
"64-h". How do you convert from bits to hex and back? Look at this chart -
Hex Binary Hex Binary
0 - 0000 8 - 1000
1 - 0001 9 - 1001
2 - 0010 A - 1010
3 - 0011 B - 1011
4 - 0100 C - 1100
5 - 0101 D - 1101
6 - 0110 E - 1110
7 - 0111 F - 1111
If you notice, there are no more 4-digit combinations of "0,1" left. Now
for the conversion part. Look at the 4 bits, each of the numbers have a
value assigned to them. We will call these values, "Bit Values".
Number in Hex 6
Number in Binary 0110
Bit Value 8421
(The Bit Value will ALWAYS be this! So remember it!)
You are going to learn to convert by using multiplication. Math is a
great tool to use when working with the GameShark.
You can represent the binary word by letting "0110"(8421) = "IJKL" and
thus you get "1xL + 2xK + 4xJ + 8xI" = "L+2K+4J+8I"(in algebraic terms). Now
substitute the binary back in, you would get "1x0 + 2x1 + 4x1 + 8x0" =
"0+2+4+0" which adds up to six. Six is what the hex value was in the
To convert back to binary, use the formula "L+2K+4J+8K", find the
numbers, which add up to six. In this case, "4 and 2". Remember, "IJKL" = the
bit value. Then substitute the binary back in - "1x0 + 2x1 + 4x1 + 8x0" =
Why do that when there's an easier way? Because there is no use in
converting when you don't understand why it is done in that way. You will
learn an easier way soon, in fact, make one up!
Octal conversions are the same as hex-to-bit. Only, octal goes up to
"7". So the bit value looks like this -
Bit value 421
The Bit Value will NEVER change. The bit value is actually the value
assigned for each bit. If you have an 8-bit value, the bit value would look
like this -
Notice that every time a new bit is added(to the beginning, no doubt),
the last bits' value will double. Further explanation is beyond the scope of
To convert between hex and decimal, use this formula -
yz = 2-digit value hex
(when) z = "A-hex", A = "10-dec"
(when) z = "B-hex", B = "11-dec"
(when) z = "C-hex", C = "12-dec"
(when) z = "D-hex", D = "13-dec"
(when) z = "E-hex", E = "14-dec"
(when) z = "F-hex", F = "15-dec"
(if) z = #, skip next step
z-hex = z-dec, z-dec = q
(if) y = #, skip next step
y-hex = y-dec, y-dec = r
y*6 = s
yz+s = yz-dec
This looks confusing, I know, but I'll explain it as if I were talk to a
First, "yz" represents a 2-digit hex value. Our value will be
"64"(y=6, z=4). When "z" is an "A", A equals "10-d". Understand that so far?
If "z"(in the 'yz' hex value) is a number, skip the next step(4 is a number,
so we skip this next step). Transfer "z" to decimal(look at the "when's").
If "y" is a number, skip the next step(6 is also a number, we skip the next
step). Transfer "y" to decimal(look at the "when's"). Multiply value "y"
by 6, the factor is "s". 6*6 = 36, s=36. Add value yz and value s.
64+36 = 100 64-h = 100-d.
Now let's do it short-hand -
"yz" = C8
C = 12, yz = (12)8
12*6 = 72
(12)8 + 72 2 -- 72-d
+(12)8 -- C8-h
0 -- 200-d
C8 = 200
If this doesn't make sense, I didn't explain it well enough. It is
important to understand how to do the number base conversions before
continuing. If you do not understand, the reader is encouraged to review the
material already presented.
You may hear about "Bitwise Operators" and wonder what some of them
actually do. They're used for doing binary math, for lack of a better
The AND operation can best be understood like addition.. only there's no
adding or carrying involved... really the only similarity is that you work
with each digit the same as you do with addition...
Just add each digit downward. Well, AND requires you to work with each digit
downward as well. Here are the rules:
1 & 1 = 1
1 & 0 = 0
0 & 1 = 0
0 & 0 = 0
That means the result will be a 1 ONLY if both comparing digits are 1
Think of it as true and false.. if TRUE & TRUE, then TRUE.
Starting from the left-most digits, 0 & 0 = 0, 0 & 1 = 0, 1 & 0 = 0,
1 & 1 = 1.... and there's your result.
You can use bitwise AND for a technique called MASKING. Masking allows you to
strip certain bits, while saving others. Say you wanted to strip the upper
nybble of a byte, and save only the lower nybble... Well, you AND that byte
with 00001111b. When you do that, the upper 4 bits will be completely stripped,
because 0 & anything is always equal to 0 and the lower four bits will copied
over directly, because 1 & anything = bits that were set. This can be useful
when dealing with hex numbers as well. Say you have AC1B02FF and you want the
lower four bits for some reason. AC1B32ED AND 0000FFFF = 000032ED
When using OR, TRUE or anything = TRUE
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 1 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0
OR is used to set bits... whereas AND is used to clear. So, if you wanted to
set the least significant bit, your could do "BYTE OR 00000001"
XOR means EXCLUSIVE OR. it's purpose is to inverse bits.
1 XOR 1 = 0
1 XOR 0 = 1
0 XOR 1 = 1
0 XOR 0 = 0
Pretty simple here... it works just like OR, with the exception that
1 XOR 1 = 0. Say you have a flag, and you want to toggle it on and off. You
can do "VAR XOR 00000001" and it will inverse it; it will turn it on if it's
off, or it will turn it off if it's on. That's much easier than doing "if VAR =
0 then VAR = 1, else if VAR = 1 then VAR = 0." Just a simple XOR operation and
you're done. Much faster.
NOT works EXACTLY like XOR with the mask completely filled with 1's NOT will
inverse the variable completely. All 1's are changed to 0 in the result, and
all 0's are changed to 1 in the result
10101010 XOR 11111111 = 01010101
NOT 10101010 = 01010101
What's the difference?
As you can see, NOT does not have a mask... so you just say "NOT VAR" and you
know it's the same as "VAR XOR 11111111"
The difference could be speed. Especially in assembly, where you might have
to load 0xFFFFFFFF into a register to perform the XOR; you could just do a
simple NOT instead.
Inversing is great because you can negate numbers with it NOT VAR + 1 = -VAR
Take for example...
NOT 00000001 = 11111110
11111110 + 1 = 11111111
and of course, 11111111 = FF, FF is -1
<< (Left Shift)
Shifting left works like multiplication when you shift left, all right-most
bits get shifted over to the left, and 0's get shifted into the blank spaces.
Here are some examples:
00111111 << 2 = 11111100
00000001 << 3 = 00001000
10000000 << 1 = 00000000
Just shifting digit places. So, shift left by 1 is the same as multiplying by
2, left shift by 2 is the same as multiplying by 4. shift left by 3 is the
same as multiplying by 8, etc. Left shit works best as a means to multiply by
a power of 2. 2^1 = 2, 2^2 = 4, 2^3 = 8, etc. Shift left x is the same as
multiply by 2^x.
>> (Right Shift)
Right shift works the same, only opposite, so it's like dividing. When right
shifting, bits shifted off of the right side are completely lost, and bits
shifted in from the left come in as 0. Well, they usually shift in as 0 when
right shifting. In MIPS, you may have noticed "Shift Right Arithmetic (SRA)"
and "Shift Right Logical (SRL)." Shifting right logical will ALWAYS shift 0's
into the new spaces. Shifting right arithmetic will shift the MSB (most
signifigant bit) into the new spaces. The MSB is treated as a sign bit with
arithmetic right shift. That's a way to preserve the sign when you divide a
Here are some examples...
SRA = Shift Right Arithmetic, SRL = Shift Right Logical:
10000000,00000000,00000000,00000000 SRA 4 =
10000000,00000000,00000000,00000000 SRL 4 =
Hexadecimal is a programming 'language' you must know in order to hack
GameShark codes. So, what is it? Hex is what your GameShark codes are
written in. There are sixteen characters used in a GS code. The characters
are as follows -
Let's learn to count in hex. If you look above, you'll see how to count
to fifteen in hex. What's sixteen? "10-h" is sixteen. By the way, don't say
"ten," say, "one, zero" for '10-h'. Let's see what you've learned.
What comes after 19?
What comes after 3F?
If you said, "1A" for question #1, that is correct.
If you said, "40" for question #2, you should know how to count in hex!
Octal is just another way to write binary(like hex), but octal
words are longer than hex words. What you've already read is enough to know
about octal. You do not need to know octal to hack GS codes.
ASCII is what you are looking at right now. ANYTHING that can be typed
on the keyboard is ASCII. ASCII is useful to know when hacking in my secret
way. It is also useful for using the text editor search option in hacking
devices such as the GameShark PRO. You don't need to know the assignments for
ASCII characters(although you might need to know them when hacking text editing
Floating Points are a hexidecimal representation of "real numbers", usually
following the IEEE-754 standard. This could be considered an advanced topic, if
nothing else, because even some long time hackers I've mentioned it to have
never heard of them. However, even those who haven't heard of them, have
most likely dealt with them in one game or another. To put it in the simplest
terms possible: Floating Points are numbers with decimal points. 100.0 and 100
are common values used by games to represent your max health. The difference is
100 is 64 in hex; 100.0 is 42C80000 in hex.
In hacking terms, Floating Points can make it difficult to find some things,
if you're only using 8-Bit comparisons. I'm not saying 32-Bit comparisons are
required though. Most things that use Floating Points are still found by 16-bit
So how can you convert those hex values like 42C80000 to their decimal form?
This is a question I've been asking for a while now. I'm told it involves advanced
math functions like Shifts and XORs. Don't get worried though. As with most things
that require much thinking, somebody wrote a program to do the conversions for us.
You can use FloatConvert [http://www.h-schmidt.net/FloatConverter/IEEE754.html here]. Nobody really knows who wrote this, but I thank that
person whoever they are.
It's not required you know anything about Floating Points to hack most codes,
but they are a major part of games and certain, more advanced, code types can be
harder to find if don't have a little understanding of this.
About Most GameShark Hackers
Most hackers use more than one way to hack. Most know programming
languages such as binary/hex/octal, HTML and Perl, scripting languages, R300
Instruction sets, etc. HTML and Perl is included here because many hackers
want to use this language to create a website that has all their codes displayed.
You don't need to learn many of the things other than binary and hexadecimal
to "hack better than the Pros."
Here are some ways you can hack(1 star[*] by the name is easy,
2 is harder, etc.) -
This isn't easy, because you don't always find a code this way.
It's not only troublesome, but risky at some times. Some guessed
codes can corrupt game data and corrupt hacking devices.
One of the easiest things to do. Change a number on an existing
code, you make a new code. (Only works when you have a basis[base
code] to work with.) This technique was and still is widely used.
Looking At The Source[Code]***
Hard, but most effective. Worth a shot. This technique requires the
reader to have a working knowledge of dissembler programs and is
currently beyond the scope of this work.
Using Hacking Equipment* - ***(Code Generators; i.e. GS PRO)
Another way to get codes. It might not be very easy, but it
doesn't take much time. Plus, it's the second most effective way
to hack. Can be used to get easy to hard code types.
Porting is taking a code from one version of a game, and making it
work on another version of that same game. This does not always
work. The reason is the same reason that they make more than one
version. Possibly to fix a minor bug. So the offsets will be in a
higher or lower position, or even moved to a totally different
location. You can use the "GS Code Porter"(available at GameShark
Central) to port any code for you. Hence you can make a code
before anyone else gets the chance! See FAQ section.
Combination Hacking* - ***
All you need to do is hack using two or more methods at once, for a
greater chance of finding a code.
(!!!!!There is a slight risk of loosing saved data on your GS
when turning the system on and off while guessing or modifying